We sought to develop a measurement instrument that evaluated Singaporean early teens' societal and environmental consciousness; we call the instrument Singaporean Societal and Environmental Consciousness Inventory (SSECI).
The instrument comprises 12 items rated on a six-level rating scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). We reverse coded items 2, 9, and 12. We administered the inventory to 351 Singaporean early teens, aged 14. To test the psychometric properties of the measurement tool, we used a Rating Scale Model (RSM).
The first analysis showed that items 2 (outfit MNSQ = 1.49) and 12 outfit MNSQ = 1.65) were misfitting. The properties of Rasch models apply to the extent that the data fit the model. If the data do not fit, person trait level and item endorsability measures are inaccurate, and the data are unlikely to be unidimensional. We found that the average person measures of the responses in categories 3 and 5 in item 2, and in categories 3 and 4 in item 12, did not ascend with category scores; and a huge difference was observed between the observed and expected point measure correlation values for those items. Additionally, we investigated person performance patterns and fit. We identified 14 individuals with erratic response patterns and huge misfits: the scalograms showed that some persons with higher trait levels had unexpectedly endorsed lower response categories and those with lower trait levels had endorsed higher response categories. We removed these 14 people for separate investigation and reanalyzed the remaining data. The results, as displayed in Table 1, were promising and closer to our expectations.
|Table 1. Psychometric Quality of the Refined Singaporean Early Teens' Societal & Environmental Consciousness Inventory|
|Item||Measure||Infit MNSQ||Infit ZSTD||Outfit MNSQ||Outfit ZSTD||Point Measure||Construct theory||Statement|
|5||0.92||1.02||0.24||1.00||0.02||0.48||High||More demanding:I often design or make useful tools (e.g., holding or standing aids for the needy).|
|10||0.50||0.98||-0.23||0.98||-0.27||0.53||High||I often design or make useful objects using reused materials (e.g., containers, papers and clothes for myself or others).|
|7||0.32||0.71||-4.36||0.71||-4.35||0.72||Medium||I often participate in environmental or energy conservation activities.|
|4||0.25||0.84||-2.18||0.84||-2.17||0.62||Medium||I often participate in charity activities or community services.|
|11||0.04||0.91||-1.18||0.91||-1.25||0.58||Medium||I am willing to pay more for environmental friendly products.|
|8||0.03||0.91||-1.29||0.91||-1.30||0.60||Medium||I like to read nature, wildlife or environmental news or magazines.|
|9REV||-0.04||1.30||3.82||1.35||4.36||0.26||High||I seldom use environmentally friendly products (e.g., recyclable bags, papers and non-polluting sprays). [Reversed]|
|6||-0.07||1.24||3.12||1.41||5.24||0.38||Low||I will not buy my favourite brand if I know the producer has been giving unfair treatment to the workers.|
|12REV||-0.25||1.28||3.61||1.30||3.77||0.35||Low||I will buy my favourite brand even if I know the material used or the producer was causing harm to the environment. [Reversed]|
|1||-0.39||0.82||-2.30||0.82||-2.38||0.62||Medium||I am willing to do volunteer work.|
|2REV||-0.64||1.13||1.56||1.27||3.01||0.39||Low||I feel I should not help to raise funds for charity. [Reversed]|
|3||-0.67||0.84||-1.98||0.83||-2.17||0.58||Medium||I am willing to donate money for charitable causes.|
Bond and Fox (2007) regard 0.6 to 1.4 as the acceptable range of fit indices. As Table 1 displays, fit MNSQ indices fell in the range of 0.71-1.41; item difficulty measure has a fairly large spread from a low of -0.67 to a high of 0.92; and point measure correlations are positive and considerably high.
Figure 1. Item-person map (on the left side) and their hypothesized values (on the right side). Each "#" is 4 persons. Each "." is 1 to 3 persons.
Figure 1 graphically displays the location of items and persons in the second analysis and compares them with our hypothetical "construct map" (Wilson, 2005) on the right side. Reading the item contents, we expected that some items likely land on the top, some in the middle, and some at the bottom of the hierarchy. This expectation was met by several items, providing evidence for the construct validity of the measurement tool; the hypothesized latent trait is fairly well-targeted by items.
Predictive validity: persons were divided into high, medium, and low allowance-per-week subgroups. We expected that higher allowance subgroups would be positioned at the top of the map. The ellipses in Figure 1 serve to match the expected construct map against the actual Rasch measures. We observed that this expectation is met in many instances although several participants fell out of the expected areas. The overlapping areas of the ellipses represent the unexpected locations of people based on the allowance-per-week criterion.
Hui Ling Ng, S. Vahid Aryadoust, and Yau Che Ming, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Bond, T. G., & Fox, C. M. (2007). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Wilson, M. (2005). Constructing measures: An item response modeling approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
An Investigation of Societal and Environmental Consciousness among Singaporean Early Teens, Hui Ling Ng, S. Vahid Aryadoust, and Yau Che Ming ... Rasch Measurement Transactions, 2010, 24:2 p. 1276-7
Please help with Standard Dataset 4: Andrich Rating Scale Model
|Rasch Measurement Transactions (free, online)||Rasch Measurement research papers (free, online)||Probabilistic Models for Some Intelligence and Attainment Tests, Georg Rasch||Applying the Rasch Model 3rd. Ed., Bond & Fox||Best Test Design, Wright & Stone|
|Rating Scale Analysis, Wright & Masters||Introduction to Rasch Measurement, E. Smith & R. Smith||Introduction to Many-Facet Rasch Measurement, Thomas Eckes||Invariant Measurement: Using Rasch Models in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences, George Engelhard, Jr.||Statistical Analyses for Language Testers, Rita Green|
|Rasch Models: Foundations, Recent Developments, and Applications, Fischer & Molenaar||Journal of Applied Measurement||Rasch models for measurement, David Andrich||Constructing Measures, Mark Wilson||Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, Boone, Stave, Yale|
|in Spanish:||Análisis de Rasch para todos, Agustín Tristán||Mediciones, Posicionamientos y Diagnósticos Competitivos, Juan Ramón Oreja Rodríguez|
|Forum||Rasch Measurement Forum to discuss any Rasch-related topic|
Go to Top of Page
Go to index of all Rasch Measurement Transactions
AERA members: Join the Rasch Measurement SIG and receive the printed version of RMT
Some back issues of RMT are available as bound volumes
Subscribe to Journal of Applied Measurement
Go to Institute for Objective Measurement Home Page. The Rasch Measurement SIG (AERA) thanks the Institute for Objective Measurement for inviting the publication of Rasch Measurement Transactions on the Institute's website, www.rasch.org.
|Coming Rasch-related Events|
|March 31, 2017, Fri.||Conference: 11th UK Rasch Day, Warwick, UK, www.rasch.org.uk|
|April 2-3, 2017, Sun.-Mon.||Conference: Validity Evidence for Measurement in Mathematics Education (V-M2Ed), San Antonio, TX, Information|
|April 26-30, 2017, Wed.-Sun.||NCME, San Antonio, TX, www.ncme.org - April 29: Ben Wright book|
|April 27 - May 1, 2017, Thur.-Mon.||AERA, San Antonio, TX, www.aera.net|
|May 26 - June 23, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 30 - July 29, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|July 31 - Aug. 3, 2017, Mon.-Thurs.||Joint IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium 2017: Measurement Science challenges in Natural and Social Sciences, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, imeko-tc7-rio.org.br|
|Aug. 7-9, 2017, Mon-Wed.||In-person workshop and research coloquium: Effect size of family and school indexes in writing competence using TERCE data (C. Pardo, A. Atorressi, Winsteps), Bariloche Argentina. Carlos Pardo, Universidad Catòlica de Colombia|
|Aug. 7-9, 2017, Mon-Wed.||PROMS 2017: Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia, proms.promsociety.org/2017/|
|Aug. 10, 2017, Thurs.||In-person Winsteps Training Workshop (M. Linacre, Winsteps), Sydney, Australia. www.winsteps.com/sydneyws.htm|
|Aug. 11 - Sept. 8, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 18-21, 2017, Fri.-Mon.||IACAT 2017: International Association for Computerized Adaptive Testing, Niigata, Japan, iacat.org|
|Sept. 15-16, 2017, Fri.-Sat.||IOMC 2017: International Outcome Measurement Conference, Chicago, jampress.org/iomc2017.htm|
|Oct. 13 - Nov. 10, 2017, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 5 - Feb. 2, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Jan. 10-16, 2018, Wed.-Tues.||In-person workshop: Advanced Course in Rasch Measurement Theory and the application of RUMM2030, Perth, Australia (D. Andrich), Announcement|
|Jan. 17-19, 2018, Wed.-Fri.||Rasch Conference: Seventh International Conference on Probabilistic Models for Measurement, Matilda Bay Club, Perth, Australia, Website|
|May 25 - June 22, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|June 29 - July 27, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Further Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|Aug. 10 - Sept. 7, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (E. Smith, Facets), www.statistics.com|
|Oct. 12 - Nov. 9, 2018, Fri.-Fri.||On-line workshop: Practical Rasch Measurement - Core Topics (E. Smith, Winsteps), www.statistics.com|
|The HTML to add "Coming Rasch-related Events" to your webpage is:|
The URL of this page is www.rasch.org/rmt/rmt242b.htm